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Achieving Predictable Valve Performance for Safety Applications

Achieving Predictable Valve Performance for Safety Applications

A focus on having the proper specificati...

Putting Servo Valves Back to Work

Putting Servo Valves Back to Work

Industries as varied as paper production...

Corrosion and Fouling: Is There a Solution?

Corrosion and Fouling: Is There a Solution?

According to a 1998 study released by the ...

Valves with All the Trimmings

Valves with All the Trimmings

The term valve trim has been around for ...

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Industry Headlines

Leading Economic Indicators Rose in January

Friday, 23 February 2018  |  Chris Guy

The Conference Board Leading Economic Index (LEI) for the U.S. increased 1.0% in January to 108.1, following a 0.6% increase in December, and a 0.4% i...

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Valve Positioners Offer Improved Control Valve Performance

Valve Positioners Offer Improved Control Valve Performance

Monday, 19 February 2018  |  David Matherly

From time to time, we are re-posting well-received or particularly valuable articles that have previously run on VALVEMagazine.com so that those who m...

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Industry Headlines

MRC Global Announces Fourth Quarter 2017 Results

2 DAYS AGO

MRC Global’s sales were $903 million for the fourth quarter of 2017, which was 26% higher than the fourth quarter of 2016 and 6% lower than the third quarter of 2017 due to seasonality. As compared to 2016, all sectors increased driven primarily by midstream and upstream.

MRC Global's fourth qu...

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Curtiss-Wright Acquires Dresser-Rand Government Business

3 DAYS AGO

Curtiss-Wright has entered into an agreement to acquire the assets that comprise the Dresser-Rand Government Business (Dresser-Rand), a business unit of Siemens Government Technologies, for $212.5 million in cash.

Dresser-Rand designs and manufactures mission-critical, high-speed rotating equipment sol...

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U.S. Refiners Increasingly Turning to Export Markets

2 DAYS AGO

“U.S. gasoline consumption has leveled off as the stimulus provided by low and falling oil prices between 2014 and 2016 has faded, so refiners are increasingly turning to diesel and customers in emerging markets,” Reuters  reports .

“In geographical terms, the fastest growth in co...

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$900M Power Plant Planned for Indiana

2 DAYS AGO

Vectren Energy Delivery of Indiana is proposing to install an additional 50 megawatts (MW) of universal solar and build an 800 to 900-MW natural gas-fired generation facility in addition to other critical investments that will significantly change the way the company generates power for the region .

Th...

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Leading Economic Indicators Rose in January

18 HOURS AGO

The Conference Board Leading Economic Index (LEI) for the U.S. increased 1.0% in January to 108.1, following a 0.6% increase in December, and a 0.4% increase in November.

“The U.S. LEI accelerated further in January and continues to point to robust economic growth in the first half of 2018. Whi...

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IHS Markit Manufacturing Index Rose in February

1 DAY AGO

U.S. manufacturers reported a strong upturn in business conditions during February, which continued the positive trend seen at the start of 2018. At 55.9, up from 55.5 in January, the seasonally adjusted IHS Markit Flash U.S. Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) pointed to the fastes...

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The U.S. Valve Industry in World War II

crane-wwii-ad

While valves didn’t directly sink ships or shoot down planes, the American valve industry played an important role in winning World War II for the allies. Without the contribution of the industry, many key chemical and petrochemical developments that helped secure victory could not have been made. In addition, the floating arsenal of democracy—naval ships, liberty ships and victory ships—could not have been built without tons of well-built valves delivered on time.

The expertise and productivity that the industry developed over the first third of the 20th century was rapidly eclipsed during the years 1940 to 1945. Out of necessity, new designs and materials were called upon to control new processes in the chemical, petrochemical and refining industries.

For example, “I think we wouldn’t have won the Battle of Britain without 100 octane fuel—but we did have the 100 octane,” Geoffrey Lloyd, Great Britain’s petroleum director, said. ­Germany’s lack of sufficient amounts of 100-octane aircraft fuel meant that the British Spitfires and Hurricanes could climb faster, fly higher and fly faster that the swastika-emblazoned enemy aircraft they faced.


100-octane-posterany attribute our superior air power during the war to Octane 100. Refinery upgrades and expansions increased the output of high octane gasoline that fueled the allies air power in World War II.AIDING THOSE WHO FUELED THE MACHINES

The valve industry helped the petroleum industry by providing flow control for the upgraded cracking processes that allowed the higher 100-octane output. In addition, the valve industry also helped provide the piping systems that created two more war-

winning chemicals—Toluene for explosives and Butadiene for synthetic rubber.

Toluene is the most important ingredient in the making of TNT, the American explosive of choice during the war. Increased capacity and processes at American Toluene plants ensured the war production conveyor belt of bombs and shells would be an endless one.

Before hostilities began, American steel wheels were gripped by tires made of imported natural rubber, most of it from the East Indies. As war clouds gathered into a raging storm in the Pacific, the United States needed an alternative to natural rubber, and it needed huge quantities in a short amount of time. American chemists perfected the development of synthetic rubber on a massive scale by increasing the output of Butadiene, a petroleum byproduct, which is the key ingredient in synthetic rubber. Now, thousands of planes and vehicles would have abundant supplies of high-quality tires and other rubber goods.

The budding pre-war petrochemical industry grew up virtually overnight, producing vital chemicals that helped to ensure victory. Every one of the new plants needed an abundance of valves in all types and sizes. During the war years, the valve industry was handed fluid process variables they had not seen before in the form of higher temperatures, unusual corrosion effects and ultra-high (for the time) pressures. These new challenges resulted in the creation of new alloys and new valve designs that still serve industry today.


AIDING FUEL TRANSPORT

Another area where the valve industry earned its stripes was in the control of new, larger critical petroleum pipelines. During the first months of the war, the petroleum tanker route from the Gulf Coast to the northeastern United States was interrupted by deadly attacks by German U-boats. This resulted in dangerous shortages of petroleum in the manufacturing centers of the Northeast. New emergency pipelines such as the “Big Inch,” a 20-inch crude and gasoline line, which ran from the Gulf Coast to the Northeast, solved the transportation problem.

The Big Inch could move product at the rate of 235,000 barrels (about 9.9 million gallons) a day. The pipeline was dotted with isolation valves throughout its 1,475-mile length from Beaumont, TX to Linden, NJ. In addition, multi-valve pumping stations were needed throughout the length of the line. Additional trunk pipelines as well as smaller feeder lines required vast quantities of pipeline valves, mostly built to American Petroleum Institute API-6D standards.

wpb-steel-valve-distribution-1943These charts show the stepped-up production of steel valves to meet the goals of the War Production Board.


ON THE WATER

Although the oil and gas industries used a huge quantity of valves, the biggest users of America’s valve output were the Navy and Merchant Marines. The nation’s shipyards launched over 4,000 ships during the war. With each ship averaging about 2,000 valves, that meant the valve industry produced at least 10 million marine valves during the four-year period.

testing-valve-during-wwiiA worker testing valves in a shop during the 1940s. Valve manufacturers during the war relied more and more on older workers as the young talent was whisked away for war-time service abroad.As American industry became more regulated, the valve and fitting industry also fell under increased government involvement. In addition to directing which industries and projects received priority during the conflict, the War Production Board (WPB) created stringent requirements for which products could even be manufactured. WPB stated in its limitization orders that certain materials could be used for valves, what sizes could be manufactured and also what pressure classes were acceptable. This force-fed standardization would be good training for the standards and specifications that were developed in the postwar years.

America’s valve manufacturers went above and beyond the call of duty to do more than their share, producing millions of valves and fittings during the four years of wartime. A letter from WPB written in late 1943 to the valve industry complemented the manufacturers on their “enviable record of production.” What’s more, the new materials, processes and production techniques perfected during those war years ensured U.S. valve market domination for at least another 30 to 40 years.

 


GREG JOHNSON is president of United Valve (www.unitedvalve.com), Houston, and is a contributing editor to Valve Magazine. He serves as chairman of VMA’s Education & Training Committee, is a member of the VMA Communications Committee and is on the board of the Manufacturers Standardization Society. Reach him at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

 

 

 


As the Valve Manufacturers Association gears up to celebrate its 75th anniversary in 2013, we present this series of articles on the history of valves, with the final installment scheduled to appear in mid-2013. At this year’s VMA 74th annual ­meeting (Sept. 20-22, 2012 in Half Moon Bay, CA), VMA will unveil plans for the year ­leading up to the grand celebration, which will culminate at the association’s 75th annual meeting, Oct. 3-5, 2013 at The ­Breakers in Palm Beach, FL.

 

 

 

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