09212017Thu
Last updateThu, 21 Sep 2017 5pm

i

Subscribe SUM17

FREE SUBSCRIPTION*

•  Print magazine
•  Digital magazine
•  VALVE eNews
Read the latest issue

*to qualified valve professionals in the U.S./Canada

The Weekly Report

New Products

  • ja-news-2
  • ja-news-3

Industry Headlines

Advertisement
i

Industry Headlines

Velan Announces New Sales Structure

2 HOURS AGO

Velan is re-designing its sales structure to be better aligned with customers’ market approach. This change is intended to focus Velan’s resources on maximizing impact and competitiveness in today’s challenging economy.

Paul Dion has been appointed as vice-president of sales, process ...

Readmore

MSS Revises Standards for Instrument Valves, Sealing of Rising Stem Valves

1 DAY AGO

The Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS) is pleased to announce the publication of the following revised Standard Practices:

  • MSS SP-99-2016a, Instrument Valves (replaces 2016 edition)
  • MSS SP-105-2016a, Instrument Valves for Code Applications (replaces 2016 edition)
  • MSS SP-120-2017, Flexible Grap...

Readmore

Construction Underway on Atlantic Sunrise Pipeline

1 DAY AGO

Construction is officially underway in Pennsylvania on the greenfield portion of the Atlantic Sunrise pipeline project – an expansion of the existing Transco natural gas pipeline to connect Marcellus gas supplies with markets in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern U.S.

Construction broke ground in ...

Readmore

EIA Projects 28% Increase in World Energy Use by 2040

1 DAY AGO

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that world energy consumption will grow by 28% between 2015 and 2040. Most of this growth is expected to come from countries that are not in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and especially in countries where d...

Readmore

U.S. Manufacturers Seeking More Renewable Energy

5 HOURS AGO

A new report from David Gardiner and Associates finds that 83% of the largest manufacturing companies with a U.S. footprint have established greenhouse gas reduction targets and 25% of manufacturers have established renewable energy targets. The analysis also finds that enabling access to renewable en...

Readmore

Harvey Caused Steep Drop in U.S. Industrial Output

3 DAYS AGO

Industrial production declined 0.9% in August following six consecutive monthly gains. Hurricane Harvey is estimated to have reduced the rate of change in total output by roughly 0.75%. The index for manufacturing decreased 0.3%; storm-related effects appear to have reduced the rate of change in facto...

Readmore

The Human Factor in Valve Operation

VM-spg11-Arrestor


Worker safety, efficiency and the cost of operations, and most recently, new methods of control, are key focal points in operating valves. One factor that affects all areas is the role and level of human involvement in the processes.

THE CHOICES

Opening or closing valves can be completed either by manual input or automated devices driven by various energy sources. Manual operators are simple, inexpensive and require little peripheral planning beyond the installation and orientation of operators in the process line. Automated devices, on the other hand, require input energy systems, control systems, additional installation space and infrastructure for support, operation and maintenance.

Two concerns considered during selection of manual operators are the effort required to operate the valve and the number of turns some valves require. A lot of effort and a high number of turns can result in personnel fatigue, safety concerns, excessive time for operation and the need for multiple personnel. Also under consideration in selecting manual operators are the valve’s expected frequency of operation and the physical location of the operation, such as whether it might be high in a superstructure or situated in an inhospitable environment. Both also present challenges to humans.

Designers have to weigh all of these factors in their decision matrix to receive the most productive yet acceptable selection of how a valve should be operated. Two aspects that primarily define operator selection are human factors and economic factors. Human factors can be defined as the human capability to cycle the valve in a safe, timely and economically sound manner. These factors require considerations such as the work needed to be done (turns and rim pull) to operate the valve, the environment in which the valve is located, the time required to complete the task, and the health and safety of the personnel involved. Economic factors include the cost of the actuator as well as the cost of infrastructure, which could include wiring, controls system, power required and ongoing maintenance to support automated solutions.

THE SPECS INVOLVED

Specifications for the highest values personnel should exert on levers or handwheels to operate a valve are defined in the industry, with current API specifications limiting pull to 360 newtons (80 pounds-force). Mechanical advantage can be used to decrease the pull required to open or close the valve by increasing the length of the lever or diameter of the handwheel mounted on the valve. How­ever, the maximum lever length or handwheel diameter is also limited by industry specifications.

As valve torque increases, maximum limits imposed by industry standards result in levers transitioning to gear units to increase mechanical advantage. However, this increase in mechanical advantage comes with the disadvantage of increasing the number of turns to move the valve across the full stroke distance.

The higher number of turns results in longer time required to cycle the valve at a constant number of revolutions per minute. With significant gear reduction, the number of turns required for full cycle can number in the hundreds. This increased number of turns leads to a greater opportunity for accidents or injury to personnel due to repetitive motion and fatigue. Companies will limit the rim pull and number of turns to reduce the risk. Once established limits are exceeded for turns, the valve is generally required to be automated.

Communicating what human factor limits might be imposed on valves can provide suppliers the opportunity to recommend the best value of operator for manual valves. Until recently, the valve industry was limited to levers, bevel gears and traditional worm gears for manual cycling. Once these devices exceeded worker safety limits, a valve purchaser’s only choice was to select an automated solution. However, new devices available in the marketplace extend the range of manual operators. These devices can reduce initial capital costs, reduce site design complexity and minimize operating expenditures. The devices include high-efficiency gear operators and portable drivers coupled with well-designed arrestors.


  • Latest Post

  • Popular

  • Links

  • Events

Advertisement

Looking for a career in the Valve Industry?

ValveCareers Horiz

To learn more, watch the videos below or visit ValveCareers.com a special initiative of the Valve Manufacturers Association