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Last updateFri, 02 Dec 2016 4pm

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Valves in a Cement Slurry Line

Valves in a Cement Slurry Line

Basically everywhere you look in modern ...

Triple Offset Butterfly Valves

Triple Offset Butterfly Valves

Since their introduction to the market m...

Digital Valve Control Leads to Increased Plant Availability

Digital Valve Control Leads to Increased Plant Availability

Surge is characterized by fast flow reve...

Cast vs. Forged: The Ongoing Debate Takes a New Direction

Cast vs. Forged: The Ongoing Debate Takes a New Direction

In the valve industry, the cast versus f...

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Industry Headlines

Industry Headlines

VMA Members Among Plant Engineering 2016 Product of the Year Finalists

3 DAYS AGO

Several VMA members are among this year’s Plant Engineering Product of the Year finalists. Emerson has products nominated in four different categories, while Siemens has several products nominated in a total of three different categories. Chesterton and Hunt Valve have products up for awards the...

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MSS Publishes Revised American National Standard for Steel Pipeline Flanges and Receives ANSI Approval

4 DAYS AGO

The Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS) announces that the substantially revised Standard Practice, SP-44-2016, Steel Pipeline Flanges, has been approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as a Revised American National Standard (ANS).

The first edition of MSS SP-44 was publish...

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U.S. Chemical Industry Remains Optimistic for 2017

3 DAYS AGO

Moving into 2017, the U.S. Chemical Processing Industry continues to enjoy optimism about future investment, according to Industrial Info's 2017 Global Industrial Outlook . Much of this activity stems from the continued low cost of natural gas liquids (NGLs), a primary feedstock for building-block che...

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Hydraulic Institute Celebrates Centennial with New Logo

4 DAYS AGO
Hydraulic Institute Celebrates Centennial with New Logo

The Hydraulic Institute (HI) will celebrate its centennial in 2017 with a new logo as part of a larger initiative to position HI for the next 100 years of service to the pump industry. The new logo is a key element of HI’s overall brand refresh and redesign process.

The logo includes a hidden &ld...

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U.S. Adds 178,000 Jobs, Unemployment Rate at 4.6%

2 DAYS AGO

The unemployment rate declined 0.3% to 4.6% in November, and total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 178,000, the Department of Labor reported today. Employment gains occurred in professional and business services and in health care.

Employment in construction continued on its recent upward trend...

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Third Quarter GDP Revised Up to 3.2% Growth

4 DAYS AGO

Gross domestic product (GDP) in the U.S. increased at an annual rate of 3.2% in the third quarter of 2016, according to the second estimate released by the Department of Commerce. In the second quarter, real GDP increased 1.4%.

This new GDP estimate is based on more complete source data than were avail...

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Standards Spring from the Need to Protect

vmspr12_anniv_1Inspection personnel are checking dimensions of finished components to ensure compliance to newly published valve standards.

Most of us in the valve industry take for granted the interchangeability and standardization of the valves produced today. Yet it wasn’t that long ago that valves were individually produced in accordance with the standards of each manufacturer.

Things like end-to-end dimensions, flange sizes and bolt circles, and even pressure ratings, were left up to the engineering and production departments of each company. Such factors were addressed in due time; however, as with many drivers in the manufacturing world, the first valve standard to be drafted covered something much more important—life and death.

Back in the latter half of the 19th century, boiler explosions were occurring at an alarming frequency, and public outcry was heard throughout the land—it appeared that the steam-fired industrial revolution was threatening to literally blow itself up.

In 1880, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was formed and over the next few decades this group of engineers created the first iteration of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (B&PVC). The problem of inconsistent boiler integrity was high on the group’s list of topics to be addressed. While the code initially dealt with a number of issues concerning materials and construction, it ­wasn’t until the 1914 edition of the B&PVC that safety valves were covered. It would be the first time in ­history that makers of safety valves had agreed to common standards for their products.

These groundbreaking safety valve rules and regulations would be honed over the years and are still actively supported today by a group in ASME called the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors.


vmspr12_anniv_7Power plants created the first need for valve standardization.A PUSH FORWARD

The industrial growth during the first years of the 20th century highlighted the need for valve and piping standardization throughout the world of manufacturing. The Henry Ford automobile assembly line techniques were adopted by many industries, including valve and fitting manufacturers. While products were flying off the assembly lines at record rates, there was no interchangeability between manufacturers’ products. You only have to look at catalogs of the day—product images show valves with blank flanges, devoid of bolt holes—to see that something was missing. The something was flange standards. Back then, it was up to the purchaser to provide the bolt-hole drilling information.

vmspr12_anniv_2In days past, customers had to specify the flange drilling they required because there were no standards to follow.This lack of interchangeability resulted in a Committee of Manufacturers on Standardization of Pipe Fittings and Valves, which was formed in 1912. The group would later become the Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS); it published its first pamphlet on pipe schedules of flanges and flanged fittings in October of 1912 and additional flange standards over the next few years. The official creation of MSS in 1924 opened the door for many valve standards over the next nine decades. During that time, numerous standards originally developed by MSS would be adopted by other organizations, such as ASME and the American Petroleum Institute (API).

vmspr12_anniv_3This check valve and globe valve installed in a 1942-era warship have been built to recently standardized end-to-end dimensions to ensure interchangeability.The American Standards Association committee B16, Sectional Committee on the Standardization of Pipe Flanges & Fittings, was created in 1921. It would later spawn other B16 committees of great importance to the valve industry. For example, one of the issues tackled by this B16 group was the lack of valve end-to-end standards. A 1927 charter to create common end-to-end standards was beset by many difficulties, not the least of which was the economic downturn of the 1930s. In 1937, the group finally adopted a proposal MSS originally put forth in 1931. This document would later become ASME/ANSI B16.10, Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves.

In 1936 API, in response to the huge growth in the oil and gas business, published 5-G-1, Pipeline Valves. Following the turmoil of World War II, API 5-G-1 would be expanded into the first edition of API 6D, at the time titled Iron and Steel Flanged Gate, Plug and Check Valves for Pipeline Service.

Probably the most familiar standard in the industrial valve business today is API 600, which covers steel valves for refinery service. When first published in 1939, the document was titled API Standard on Flanged Steel, Outside Screw and Yoke, Wedge Gate Valves. The API 600 document exists today as Steel Gate Valves, Flanged and Butt-welding Ends, Bolted Bonnets.

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